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Mygalomorphae Idiopidae Ctenolophus Morphological study of the Ctenolophus genus
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Středa, 02 Únor 2011 15:19

Morphological study of the Ctenolophus genus

Written by  Stanislav Macík
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Distribution-The family Idiopidae is known from south and central America,Africa,India and west Australia.It is reprezented in southern Africa by six genera and 62 species.
Diagnostic characters to family Idiopidae:
Idiopids are medium-sized to large (8–33 mm)

spiders with the following synapomorphies:
c_300_0_16777215_0___images_stories_ctenolopus.jpgDistal sclerite of male palp open along one side with second haematodocha extending almost to tip of embolus,cymbium of male palp with one lobe rounded,other acutely pointed, palpal tibia of males swollen and usually with an excavation prolaterally, bearing short, thorn-like spines usually arranged in a half-circle.
Diagnostic characters Idiopids are medium-sized to large (8–33 mm) spiders with the following synapomorphies:
distal sclerite of male palp open along one side with second haematodocha extending almost to
tip of embolus, cymbium of male palp with one lobe rounded, other acutely pointed,
palpal tibia of males swollen and usually with an excavation prolaterally, bearing short, thorn-like
spines usually arranged in a half-circle.

Diagnostic characters to genus Ctenolophus:

Median ocular quadrangle usually wider posteriorly than anteriorly,anterior lateral eyes large,near clypeal edge,usually on tubercles-posterior row of eyes procurved-posterior lateral eyes usualy large and reniform orpear-shaped cheliceral furrow with a row of large teeth on inner row,auter row of teeth reduced or only a few small denticles posteriorly,labium broader than long with two pairs of small marginal siggila,coxa III with strips of rather slengs setae on posteroventral border,male palp as in fig.Body size 8-18mm.

Higher classification:
Raven (1985) placed the Idiopidae in the microorder Fornicephalae in the Rastelloidina with the Migidae, Actinopodidae and Ctenizidae. The Cyrtaucheniidae constitutes the sister group of the Idiopidae.
Taxonomic note:
Raven (1985) reviewed and redelimited the Idiopidae and provided a key to the genera. He transferred several genera previously placed in the Ctenizidae to the Idiopidae.

Idiopids are trapdoor spiders that use their rastellums to excavate burrows. They make their burrows in a variety of soil types, often on open grassy plains where the soil is soft during summer, enabling them to dig or enlarge their burrows before the soil hardens during the winter months.
The females live permanently in silk-lined burrows while adult males usually wander around in search
of a mate.

gorgyrella-017.jpgSpecies recorded from Southern Africa
1. Ctenolophus cregoei (Purcell, 1902b)
Acanthodon cregoei Purcell, 1902b: 352; Hewitt, 1919b: 75.
Ctenolophus cregoei: Purcell, 1904: 119; Roewer, 1942: 149.
Type locality: male holotype (SAM 981), Durban
(29.57S; 30.59E), KwaZulu-Natal.
Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal: Durban).
2. Ctenolophus fenoulheti Hewitt, 1913a
Ctenolophus fenoulheti Hewitt, 1913a: 414; Roewer, 1942: 149.
Type locality: female holotype (AM), Newington,
Soutpansberg district, Northern Province (Note: according
to an atlas ‘Newington’ is close to Pilgrim’s Rest
(24.51S; 31.25E) in Mpumalanga Province).
Distribution: South Africa (Mpumalanga: Newington).
3. Ctenolophus kolbei (Purcell, 1902b)
Acanthodon kolbei Purcell, 1902b: 353.
Ctenolophus kolbei: Purcell, 1904: 118; Roewer, 1942: 150.
Type locality: female syntypes (SAM 4543), Kentani
district (32.30S; 28.21E), Eastern Cape Province
Distribution: South Africa (Eastern Cape: Kentani).
4. Ctenolophus oomi Hewitt, 1913a
Ctenolophus oomi Hewitt, 1913a: 415.
Acanthodon oomi: Hewitt, 1916b: 187; Roewer, 1942: 150.
Type locality: female holotype (NM), Lüneburg, near
Paulpietersburg (27.25S; 30.50E), KwaZulu-Natal.
Distribution: South Africa (KwaZulu-Natal: Paulpietersburg;
Mpumalanga: Lake Chrissie, Oshoek, Carolina)Species recorded from Southern Africa

Morphological study of the Mygalomorph of trapdoor spiders of family idiopidae genus Ctenolophus and taxonomical knowlenge of the genus is still unsatisfactory.



References and adopted metod
special thanks for goodwill :A.S Dippenaar-Schoeman,Dr.Robert Raven and Prof.Manfred Schoon

Last modified on Středa, 17 Srpen 2011 15:06

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